ON THE THEORY OF TWO ELECTRODYNAMICALLY COUPLED DIPOLES
Kevanishvili G.Sh., Kotetishvili K.V., Bolkvadze D.R and Kekelia G.L.
Georgian Technical University
By the method of generalized δ-like functions, the approximate, but correct, theory of two electrodynamically coupled symmetric dipoles, one of which is active, has been resolved. The law of distribution of axial currents in the dipoles was established and the link between them was found. The input impedance of the active dipole and the system directional characteristic were calculated.
Keywords: dipole, coupling, surface current density, Hallen's integral equation, theory.
The correct solution to Tai T.Wu's integral equation for surface current of an isolated symmetric dipole was obtained by the method of generalized δ-like functions.
Keywords: antenna, dipole, integral equation.
A new theory of a dipole probe placed in a material medium with losses is suggested. The theory is based on the correct presentation of the Hallen's integral equation kernel for a short dipole. As a result, the rigorous solution to this equation in relation to the dipole axial current was found. Depending on the material medium parameters (εr and σ), the dipole input admittance was defined in an explicit form.
Keywords: Hallen's integral equation, short dipole, probe, material medium, surface current.
Statistical characteristics of electromagnetic waves scattered by a randomly inhomogeneous absorptive layer are investigated in a small-angle geometrical optics approximation when the source and the receiver are located in opposite directions with respect to the layer. Numerical calculations were carried out.
Keywords: random medium, correlation function, angular spectrum.
By the use of various kinematic models of the solar wind plasma MHD flow, analytical expressions of a normal component of the generated magnetic field have been obtained. There was used a flat current layer model, that is analogous to the external boundary of the magnetosphere and functions as one of the energy supplying channels for the internal magnetosphere.
Keywords: magnetosphere, focal area, topology, kinematic approximation, current layer.
There are presented the results of the study of one property of second-order asymmetric central composition designs associated with the estimation error of regression equation coefficients - D-optimality. For this criterion, the optimal value of the "star" branch which provides the best design properties from the standpoint of closeness to the D-optimality was found. There were also studied the truncated designs close to D-optimal ones which provide minimum generalized dispersion of a part of coefficient estimations. The "star" branch value which is optimal from the viewpoint of the suggested criterion of minimum dispersion of sub-matrix determinants of different coefficient groups was determined.
Keywords: experimental design, asymmetric composition designs, D-optimality.
The reasons for using the game experiments to investigate the organization mechanisms of management are analyzed. The review of the methods of development, organization and application of imitative games is presented.
Keywords: imitative games, organization mechanisms, investigation.
A model of a digital automation of an optoelectronic converter for pipeline processing of information represented by optical signals is considered. The set of input and output signals and the transition function of cellular automations type KVA-Sh and KVA-M were analyzed.
Keywords: digital automation, pipeline converter, optical signals, optoelectronic module.
Load diagrams of the electric drive of jig-back aerial tramways (JBATW) were obtained. From the analysis of the mentioned diagrams, it is evident that the JBATW have rather a complex dynamic character, totally different from the load diagrams of similar mechanisms. The electric drive loading of the JBATW with intermediate supports, as compared to the supportless ones, at movement of hanging vessels to the supports, abruptly changes its sign and value during one operation cycle. That induces low-frequency electromechanical oscillations in the electromechanical part of the electric drive, which impede controlling of the electric drive and deteriorate its dynamic properties.
Keywords: jig-back aerial, tramway, electric drive, load diagram.
The calculated model of an electric drive mobile mechanical part of jig-back aerial tramways with intermediate supports is rather complex and represents a multimass closed system. Basing on the investigation carried out, it is shown that, in motion, the mentioned model changes its structure twice. As a result, sustained oscillations are set up in the electromechanical part of the electric drive. This hinders control of the mentioned drive.
Keywords: jig-back tramway, electric drive, calculated model, analysis.
Inertness of the mutual induction phenomenon and its dual nature are demonstrated. There has been derived an expression of the induction law in the reference system of similar terminals: where the positive (negative) inertia corresponds to the negative (positive) mutual induction when the emf direction coincides (does not coincide) with the current direction in the loop and facilitates (impedes) its changing.
Keywords: mutual induction, inertia, similar terminals.
Recurrent relationships connecting the diagonal part of the p(x) kernel of the p operator, projected onto finite-dimensional invariant space M of operator L, and the diagonal parts of the kernels of operator Lj=LjP, induced by operators Lj in this space, were derived. The relationships were derived for the case of Sturm-Liouville operator formed at section [0,π] by differential equation l[y]=-y''+q(x)y and divided general-kind boundary conditions. The possibility of generalization of the obtained relationships for the cases of operators defined at a line or a semiline is discussed.
The equation connecting functions ρ(x) and potential q(x) was derived. There were established the conditions under which the non-negative function ρ(x) can be a n,q - representability relative to operator L.
Keywords: Sturm-Liouville operator, n,q – representability, diagonal parts of operator kernels, potential.
There has been derived an equation for calculating the kinetic energy density in the one-dimensional case at noninteracting density of fermions.
Keywords: kinetic energy, fermions, density, calculation equation.
There is solved the problem of determination of the limiting size of lymph glands which allows one to make a decision that the real size of a lymph gland does not exceed the specified critical value C with high probability.
Keywords: lymph glands, limiting size, mathematical method, Fisher's criterion, χ2 criterion.
For representation of the images, geometrical, brightness and colour components have been introduced. The common morphological information for all the components was obtained. The concept of mutual activity of the colour components was entered. The decision rule for representation of the images was elaborated. The processing algorithm of the multicomponent static images was developed.
Keywords: static images, Kirlian images, components, representation, algorithm.
The principles of Kirlian image analysis are briefly described. The alphabet for identification of the patterns is suggested. The obtained results are an effective tool for development of expert systems.
Keywords: Kirlian images, description, alphabet.
A device for registering the absolute values of eye movement reactions is described. The device is based on a matrix-type photoreceiver which falls into the instruments with charged connection. The matrix area is divided into informative and noninformative parts. It is shown that the informative area is a square inscribed in the eye iris, which is programmed in the computer and does not exist physically.
Along with physicians, the device can be useful for phisiologists, psychologists, engineers etc.
Keywords: eye, movement reaction, registration method.
Reassuring results obtained by us (1967) in the field of telekinesis could not be published then because of ideological ban on this item in our country in those days. However, recently scientific publications on telekinesis have attracted great attention. A brief review of these publications is presented. The investigation results obtained by the authors of the present work are described. A possibility of application of the telekinesis phenomenon for remote control is justified.
Keywords: telekinesis, investigation results.
A kinematic study of the trellis teabush trimmer (type PSC-2.5) with simultaneous gripping of two trellises has been carried out. The initial data for determination of nominal parameters of the trimmer were obtained. The trimmer run is single with the decreasing rate of a normal cutting knife.
Keywords: teabush, trellis trimmer, kinematics.
There were determined some general specifications of flat trimmer PSC-2.5 for trellis trimming of teabushes with simultaneous gripping of two trellises (2´ 1.25 mm). The specifications include, in particular, the angle of the segment inclination depending on the angle of the stem inclination, longitudinal and lateral bendings of stems, the load area, placing forces of inertia in equilibrium, etc.
Keywords: teabush, trellis trimmer, general specifications.
Coordination compounds of CoX2 with paradimethylaminobenzaldehyde benzoyl hydrazine were synthesized. By X-ray and IR spectral analyses, the octahedral structure of the complexes [Co2(O,H)2X2] (x=Cl‾, SCN‾) was estabilished.
Keywords: coordination compounds, cobalt (II) thiocyanate, cobalt(II) chloride, paradimethylaminobenzaldehyde benzoyl hydrazine, synthesis, structure.
There have been studied the IR absorption spectra (400-4000 cm-1) of coordination compounds of cobalt (II) and nickel (II) with metanitrobenzaldehyde isonicotinoylhydrazone of the following composition: MX2L(H2O), MCl2L(HO)2, (M=Co,Ni, X=Cl‾,SCN‾), Co(NO3)2L(HO)2 and Ni(NO3)L2. The ligands are monodentate and are coordinated with metals via the atoms of heterocycle nitrogen. Acidoligands Cl‾, SCN‾ and NO3 are intraspheric.
Keywords: coordination compounds, nickel (II), cobalt (II), isonicotinoylhydrazone, metanitrobenzaldehyde.
There have been produced new chemically and photochemically stable polymeric films based on the nematic-chiral mixture consisting of 4-octyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl, 4-p-n-hexyloxyphenyl-4-p'-octyloxybenzoate and tigogenin caprinate. The films are characterized by effective colour-temperature features.
Keywords: polymeric liquid-crystalline films, colour-temperature.
The IR spectra of colored and uncolored spirochromene forms were investigated. The electron density distribution, the effective charge value, the π-electron density, and the indexes of some bonds in these spirochromenes were calculated by the quantum-chemical CNDO-2 method. Basing on the investigation results, the conclusion has been made that introduction of a pyridine ring increases the stability of the uncolored spirochromene form. At spirochromene coloring, deionization of the C3=C4 bond and inclusion of the nitrogen atom into the coupled π-system of the merocyanine chain take place. In the colored spirochromene forms, contribution of the bipolar structure increases.
Keywords: spirohromenes, photochromy, quantum-chemical calculation.
There were synthesized and studied the coordination compounds of zinc and copper of general content MCl2(3.5dnb)2(pipH)2. As ligands, 3,5- and 2,4 -dinitrobenzoate piperidines were used.
Keywords: dinitrobenzoate, piperidine, zinc, copper, coordination compounds,X-ray structure analysis.
A new synthesis of heneicos-(Z)-6-en-11-one, a sex pheromone component of Douglass-fir tussock moth (Orgyia pseudotsugata) starting from available cyclooctadine and ethylene has been elaborated.
Keywords: metathesis, 1.5-cyclooctadiene, ethylene, pheromones, Douglass-fir tussock moth (Orgyia pseudotsugata).
Iodomethylene trialkyl (aryl) arsonium tetraiodocadmoates have been synthesized and investigated. It is shown that the desired products with almost quantitative yield are obtained when the aqueous solution of cadmium iodide is treated with the alcoholic solution of methylene alkyl (aryl) arsonium iodide of the equivalent quantity in the presence of potassium iodide. The anionic-cationic structure of the syntesized products was corroborated by IR spectroscopy and the data on molar electric conductance of the solutions diluted with dimethylformamide. Chemical behaviour of the synthesized complexes at heating was studied and possible schemes of their thermolysis were performed.
Keywords: tetraiodocadmoate, iodomethylene alkyl (aryl) arsonium, syntesized complexes, chemical behaviour, thermolysis scheme.
There is shown a possibility of quantitative determination of the total content (weight %) of arsenic and antimony at their simultaneous presence in cationic-anionic coordination compounds. The opinion is stated that, by the Evans method, arsenic and antimony can be effectively determined at their simultaneous presence in other inorganic compounds as well.
Keywords: arsenic, antimony, quantitative determination, total content.
Sublimation is the basic method of arsenic clearing. Here, the possibility of application of the sublimation in production of pure arsenic from raw materials of various origin is considered. It is shown that the sublimation can be used as a final stage in the technological scheme of pure arsenic production.
Keywords: pure arsenic, sublimation, purification.
The changes in the saturated vapor pressure of arsenic alcoholates depending on substance molecular constants have been studied using the correlation method. It is shown that the saturated vapor pressure of homologues of the alcoholates and substances with different basic elements linearly depends on the criterial parameter. The comparative analysis method can be applied only to the basic elements which are close by properties.
The proposed approach can be used for predicting the tensometric properties in homologous series.
Keywords: arsenic alcoholates, saturated vapor, pressure, correlation method.
The kinetics of the reaction between tributyl arsenite and ethylene glycol at the stoichiometric reagent ratio has been studied. The reaction proceeded nonisothermically over the temperature range 403-428 K. The relation between the degree of conversion and the time was determined.
To explain the obtained results, there is suggested a supposed kinetic scheme, which implies formation of intermediate associates. Conformation of these scheme with the experimental results was checked by the method of "quasi-stable" concentrations and by numeric solution of differential equations with the help of Euler's method.
Keywords: tributyl arsenite, reesterification, kinetic scheme, experimental results, calculation.
The investigation results on the synthesis of hitherto unknown heterocyclic systems - α-pyrono[4,5-e] indole and 1,2-dioxo-1,2 dihydro-α-pyrono[4,5-e] indole are presented. The synthesis methods are described. The data obtained by IR, NMR and mass spectrometry are presented.
Keywords: heterocyclic system, α-pyrono[4,5-e] indole, derivatives, synthesis, investigation.
To elaborate a coulometric method for determination of manganese dioxide in synthetic and natural objects, dissolution of MnO2 in potassium bromide (KBr) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) mixtures has been studied. The influence of HCl and KBr concentrations on the MnO2 dissolution rate in these mixtures was also studied.
Keywords: manganese dioxide, dissolution, potassium bromide, hydrochloric acid.
A coulometric method for determination of manganese dioxide was elaborated. The method is based on electrochemical generation of bromine from acid solutions. The elaborated method allows one to determine manganese dioxide in ores and concentrates.
Keywords: manganese dioxide, manganese ores and concentrates, determination, coulometric method.
There has been studied water absorption from methanol by natural zeolites from Georgian deposits: phillipsite, clinoptilolite and mordenite. It was shown that application of natural phillipsite for methanol desiccation is rather promising.
Keywords: desiccation, natural zeolites, alcohols.
There is demonstrated that, during alcoholic fermentation, microbiological transformation of ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate fungicides is rather limited. The transformation of fungicide molecules is determined by abiotic, hydrolysis and oxidation processes.
Keywords: wine materials, fungicides, ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate, fermentation, transformation.
Carbon-lalelled ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate fungicides were used to reveal their possible transformation during alcoholic fermentation. Among the metabolites, ethylene thiuram monosulfide, ethylene thiuram disulfide, ethylene thiourea, ethylenediamine and one unidentified compound were isolated. The effect of copper (II) ions on incorporation of these compounds, containing amino groups, in the residue of metabolites was also investigated.
Keywords: wine materials, fungicides, ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate, residue, copper (II) ions effect.
There have been investigated the ways of metabolism of herbicides - aryloxyalcylcarboxylic acid derivatives (14C-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and its amine salt) in black soils of Georgia under both sterile and unsterile conditions. It is shown that the metabolism of 14C-2,4-D and its amine salt is affected by both biotic and abiotic factors. The priority is assigned to the biotic processes, which cause degradation of the aromatic ring to 14CO2. The intermediate product of the aromatic ring degradation - cis-2,4-dichloromuconic acid was determined. The effects of the soil dispersion on the 14C-2,4-D metabolism and the role of actinomicets and a fraction of the soil organic substance in the process of detoxication of the studied herbicides were established.
Keywords: herbicides, black soil, metabolism, degradation, aryloxyalcylcarboxylic acids, mineralization.
Sorption of the derivatives of aryloxyalkylcarboxylic acids by Georgian black soils has been studied. The substances under investigation are weakly sorbed by the black soils; physical sorption prevails. Experimental isotherms of the sorption of 2,4-D and the 2,4-D salt are sufficiently described by Freindlich's isotherm equation. The sorption can be enhanced at shifting down the pH value by 1-2 units below the dissociation constant. It was established that, under these conditions, most of the studied substances are in the form of nonionized molecules which are capable to form hydrogen bonds with carbonyl and amine groups of the soil organic substance.
Keywords: aryloxyalkylcarboxylic acid, amine salt, black soil, herbicide, sorption, isotherm.
Pure yeast cultures from the national collection of Magarach Institute and residual yeasts after production of white table and champagne wine materials were investigated. There were studied the possibilities of obtaining the biologically pure product without using the techniques which inhibit the yeast cell fermentation activity, with maximum disintegration of proteins (to di- and tripeptides and aminoacids) and polysaccharides, preserving the vitamin complex (B, PP). The efficiency of using saccharose for extracting the yeast cell content was established.
Keywords: wine-making, yeasts, residues, utilization.
Dynamics of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the agricultural sector of Georgia for 1980-2000 years is presented. Two scenarios of emissions for the next decade have been worked out on the basis of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) increase in the mentioned sector. One of them is based on the 8% increase in the GDP, and another - on the 2% increase. In both cases the emissions of GHGs are increasing as compared with the emissions of 2000. This means that the agricultural sector of Georgia will always be a serious source of GHG emissions, and measures of their reduction are to be adopted.
Keywords: greenhouse gases, agricultural sector, emissions, forecast.
The method and device for dielectric heating of wood with high-frequency current are proposed. The method is characterized by good quality of material heating and a high economic effect as compared to the available ones. The results of investigation of the processes proceeding in the dielectric (wood) under the high-frequency current effect are presented. Operation of the device realizing the mentioned method is described.
Keywords: wood treatment, crossband veneer, dielectric heating, method, device.
The methods of utilization of gold from obsolete articles, used in Medieval Georgia, are described. The gold articles were melted or chemically treated with gold-dissolving mixtures. Sulfur was also used for interaction with heated black enamel. At sudden cooling, the latter was easily removed from the gold substrate.
Keywords: gold, utilization method, Medieval Georgia.
The obtained experimental data are analyzed. Special features of assignment of a notion to an object are defined. Basic concepts from the spots of recognition to the assignment of the notion are presented.
Keywords: recognition of images, spots of reception, notion of an object, special features.
In an adiobatic approximation, there was evaluated the intensity of the surface electric currents induced by changes in the volume and shape of the stagnation zone in front of the magnetosphere of the Earth.
Keywords: magnetosphere, solar wind, stagnation zone, current intensity, evaluation.
Humic and fulvic acids extracted from Georgian black soil were studied. It was established that the colour of these acids changes at heating, under UV light and during long-time storage. The fulvic acid colour depends on the pH value. The belief is stated that the electron absorption spectra of humic acid result from conjugation of binary bonds which can be distributed under the exposure to light in a basic medium. The process proceeds according to the free-radical mechanism which is accompanied by complete or partial decolouration of the solution of humic and fulvic acids.
Keywords: humic acid, fulvic acid, colour, irradiation, black soil.
A method of synthesizing the glasses, the melt of which is corrosive to a melting pot, is proposed. This technology provides minimum transition of melting pot components to the glass content owing to the use of a skull layer deposited beforehand at the melting pot inner surface. The proposed method can be used for producing the glasses, corrosive to the melting pot with minimum 10-fold reduction of synthesized glass pollution that usually occurs because of eating away the melting pot.
Keywords: silicate glasses, melt, synthesis, corrosive material.
Basing on ethnographic materials, there is considered one of ancient Georgian methods of producing granules from noble metals. It is shown that, for this purpose, cut portions of wire produced by drawing were melted using coal dust. The coal dust facilitated formation of smooth spherical forms of noble metals and protected them from undesirable air effect.
Keywords: noble metals, granules, ancient method.
Basing on the study of the transport system of the city of Tbilisi, particular areas for improving the transversal connections of the territories adjoining the river Mtkvari are considered.
Keywords: territory of the city of Tbilisi, transport system, transversal connections, improvement.